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DEPARTURE  TO  BUCHAREST ARRIVAL  IN  BUCHAREST

discover  " The Little Paris ", once an Avant-Garde city,
nowadays a fascinating and lively Capital


 what'on
RESERVATION  AT  THE  HOTEL LEADERS  and  LEADERSHIP

Rumania's  Leading Hotel

Winner of the 2010 World Travel Awards
A modern landmark in the main square

OPERA

At the cultural crossroads between East and WestBucharest is known for the quality of its theater, opera, musical and ballet performances since the XVIIIth century.

LIGHTNING

Bucharest was the first city in the world illuminated on oil lamp (1857)
World Premiere in 1885  -
Bucharest introduced electrical lightning in a hospital : The Military Hospital.
The National Theater of Bucharest was the third in Europe to receive the electrical lightning.

TRANSPORTS

Rumania has been one of the top 10 countries in the world to put the automobile in circulation ever since it was manufactured.
Starting from 1895, several steam cars, an Oldsmobile and a Panhard begun circulating.
In 1912, an Argo Brougham, the world's first electric car, is introduced in Bucharest.


GOOD  TO  KNOW
THE  HISTORY OF  THE  CITY represented by the buildings

Since 1995
Boost of the Post-revolutionary Architecture. The second skyscraper of Bucharest,  The Bancorex Building / Financial Plaza symbolizes Modernity at the Turn of the Centuries.

1983 
THE  PALACE  OF  THE PARLIAMENT / THE  PEOPLE'S HOUSE
Works commenced for the construction of the most expensive and the heaviest  administration building in the world.
Three times it reached the "Guiness Book of Records".

1970
INTERCONTINENTAL HOTEL
The first skyscaper of Bucharest and the only one until the 1989 Revolution.



1960
THE  PALACE  HALL
The building is located immediately behind the National Museum of Art, the former Royal Palace.
Since its opening until nowadays, it remains the main conference center and concert hall of the city.

1957 - CASA SCĀNTEII
The building was designed by Horia Maicu in the Soviet Socialist Realism style to house  the State's Press and Scīnteia, the official newspaper  of the Central Committee of the Rumanian Labour Party.  The architecture was inspired by the Lomonosov University of Moscow.
Today, the building is called  The House of The Free Press.

THE  30 's
INTERWAR BUCHAREST 
Apotheosis of the ART - DECO  style throughtout architectural masterpieces and most elegant buildings.

1922
THE  ARCH  OF  TRIUMPH
designed by the architect Petre Antonescu.
CALEA  VICTORIEI
The Victory Avenue
The main avenue was initialy    
named Drumul Brasovului- the road of Brasov, being part of the trade road Bucharest - Brasov. From 1692 to 1700, it was named Podul Mogosoaia - the Bridge of Mogosoaia . In 1814, The Bridge of Mogosoaia was among the first streets to be illuminated by candlelight. Since October 12  1878, it is  named Calea Victoriei following  Rumania's victory in the War of Independence (1877-78).

1911 - THE  PALACE  OF  THE  MILITARY  CLUB
Designed by the architect Dimitrie Maimarolu, in collaboration with V.Stefanescu and E. Doneaud. The Palace houses the Cultural Institute of The Rumanian Army.

1903- THE  CANTACUZINO  PALACE / The George Enescu Memorial House. Enescu  (1881 - 1955)  was the greatest rumanian composer, violonist, conductor and pianist . In 1939 he married Maria Rossetti ( divorced from the Prince Cantacuzino) . While staying in Bucharest, they lived in the Cantacuzino Palace ; now a museum dedicated to his work.

1902 
THE  PALACE  OF THE  POST  OFFICE / NATIONAL  MUSEUM  OF RUMANIAN  HISTORY
The building was designed by  Al. Savulescu   and once served as the city's main post office. The architecture was inspired by the Federal Post Office in Geneva .  Since 1972, it houses the Museum  which is one of the major cultural institutions in Rumania.

1900
THE  PALACE  OF  THE  SAVINGS  BANK (CEC) designed by the french architect Paul Gottereau to house the first Rumanian Savings Bank.
1896
CINEMA
First cinematographical prezentation in Rumania thanks to the movies of the  Lumičre  Brothers.

1888
THE  RUMANIAN  ATHENEUM
"the heart of the rumanian culture"
Great rumanian musicians : George Enescu, Maestro Sergiu Celibidache, Maria Tanase, Maria Ciobanu, Vladimir Cosma, Gheorghe Zamfir, Aura Urziceanu, Richard Stein.

1872
THE NORTHERN  RAILWAY  STATION

 
1871 - 1894
TRAMWAY
In 1871, the first railway truck drawn by horse  was established and already named tramcar.
The first public electrical railways were lauched in 1894.

1869 - FILAREAT  STATION
The first railway station of Bucharest.

1864
THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  BUCHAREST
The University was founded by princely decree nr. 765 - 4/16 July 1864 during the reign of Alexandru Ioan Cuza.

1852
THE  NATIONAL THEATER
Grand Opening on December 31.
With 1000 seats, this new building becomes the third largest in the Europe.

1837 - 1866 - 1947- 1950  ->
THE  ROYAL  PALACE
THE  NATIONAL  MUSEUM  OF  ART OF RUMANIA
In 1837, the Wallachian ruling prince Alexandru Ghica uses the former house of governor Dinicu Golescu as a ceremonial Palace and residence. In 1866, the german prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, first King of Rumania, makes the palace his official residence. The building sustains additional remodeling and enlargement to meet the royal administrative needs. In 1882, the Palace is adapted for electric lightning.
It remains Royal residence until the end of WWII and until the exile of King Michael (1947).
Since 1950, the Palace houses the National Museum of Art.

Since 1806  -
New administrative  impulse : the streets were repaired and new buildings were projected such as  "Hanul lui Manuc" (Manuc's Inn),  the Filantropia  Hospital (1812) and  Cismeaua Rosie  (the Red Fountain) the first Theater of Bucharest.

1789 - Bucharest had 6006 houses and 30.030 inhabitants

1704
THE  COLȚEA  HOSPITAL
the first hospital of Bucharest was established at the "Coltea"  Monastery
and is still operating nowadays.

1692
Opening of the first Graduate School of Wallachia – "the Prince's Academy " at the Saint-Sava Monastery.


September 20,  1459
BUCHAREST
The earliest known written reference of "Bucuresti" is a document  of the Chancellery of the prince Vlad Tepes; (1431-1476), Prince Vlad III of Wallachia, nicknamed  Vlad The Impaler. 
The archaelogical discoveries dating from the Middle Paleolithic, about 150.000 BC.. J-C, attest to human presence in the territory of Bucharest. 

INVENTIONS  AND  INVENTORS   Rumanian Genius
AERODYNAMIC  CAR
Aurel Persu  (1890-1977)
He applied aerodynamics principles to automobile  and came to the conclusion that the aerodynamic car should have the shape of a falling water-drop.
In 1924, he builded the first car to have the wheels inside of its aerodynamic line.
ANTI-CHOLERIC  VACCINE
Ioan Cantacuzino (1863-1934)
He invented the notion of " Contact Immunity"
In 1913, he introduced the very first mass experience of combatting the cholera epidemic. In medecine, this mass vaccine is know as " the great rumanian experience".
ASLAVITAL
Ana Aslan (1897 - 1988)
& Elena Polovrageanu, pharmacist
In 1980, Ana Aslan and the pharmacist Elena  Polovrageanu invented the second anti-aging product after their Gerovital.
ASPHALT
Gogu Constantinescu  (317  patents)
He promoted the use of concrete in construction  by building the first concrete bridge with straight beams in Rumania. He also consolidated the dome of the former Parliament House (today, The Palace of the Patriarchate) and the dome of the Minaret of the Constanta Mosque.
AUTOMATIC   GEARBOX
Gogu Constantinescu   (1881 - 1965)
He introduced propelled blades regardless of its speed and the first automatic transmission.
BATTERY - THE  KARPEN  PILE
Nicolae Vasilescu-Karpen (1870-1964)
In 1909, he invents the battery that provides continuous energy. The construction is simple, having glossy gold and porous black platinum electrodes embedded in sulfuric acid.
ELECTROSCOPE
Dragomir Hurmuzescu  (1865-1954)
In 1895, he invented and built the electroscope.
FLIGHT,  TAKEOFF  AND  LANDING
Traian Vuia   (1872-1950)
By 1905, he finished construction of his first aircraft the " Traian Vuia 1" a high-wing monoplane powered by carbonic acid gas engine. The first flight traveled about 12 m and was the first well documented takeoff and landing on a level surface by an engine-driven monoplane with a wheeled undercarriage.
Aviation pioneer Albert Santos Dumont recognized Vuia as a " forerunner" of his efforts".
FOUNTAIN  PEN 
Petrache Poenaru   (1799-1875)
In 1827, he invents the "never ending portable pen which recharges itself with ink"  for which he receives the patent nr. 3208 of the Manufacture Department from the French Ministry of Interior.
HYPER  CD-ROM
Dr. Eugen Pavel
He invented the 3D optical data storage medium with a claimed initial capacity of 10 TB and with a theoretical capacity of 1 PB
His HYPER CD-ROM is patented in 21 countries.
INSULIN  INJECTION
Nicolae Paulescu  (1869 - 1931)
By 1911, he began research on diabetes and succeeded in isolating the antidiabetic pancreatic hormone, the PANCREINE which may decrease blood glucose and ketones, while increasing liver glycogen
On April 10, 1922 ,  he secured the patent rights for his methodof manufacturing Pancreine ( his own term for INSULIN)  - patent no. 6254 - 
He is considered the first to describe the substance later called INSULIN.
JET  PLANE
Henri Coanda;  (1886 - 1972)
In 1910, as pionneer of the world's aviation, he designed, built and piloted, the first thermojet powered aircraft , known as COANDA 10.
Gustave Eiffel told him
" Young man you are born with 30 years befor your time".

MULTIPLE  TELEPHONY
Augustin Maior   (1882 - 1963)
In 1906, he experienced the first multiple telephony on one single 15 km long telephonic line - he managed 5 simultaneous  communications without any  interference signals.
SONICITY  
Invention of a new science  about transmitting mechanical energy through vibrations.
Gogu Constantinescu   (1881 - 1965)
In 1919, he presented the multiple functioning of the sonicity in transports, energetics and petroleum drillings.
He applied his theory on several of his own inventions such as  the sonic engine, the sonic pump, the sonic hammer and the sonic radiator.
VITAMIN  H3,  GEROVITAL
Ana Aslan  (1897 - 1988)
& Elena Polovrageanu, pharmacist
In 1952, with the invention of this anti-aging treatment  Dr. Ana Aslan established the world's first geriatric Institute named „ The Ana Aslan National Institute for Gerontology and Geriatrics".


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HAUTE  CULTURE 1
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LIFE  IN  BUCHAREST
BUCHAREST  NATIONAL  OPERA  HOUSE    


a must read


a must read


King Ferdinand I National Military  Museum



CITY  WALK
NAPOLEON  III MEMORIAL  MONUMENT AND  SQUARE
The Monument is a FIRO donation to the city of Bucharest and to the coming generations.

The Monument became the symbol of the franco-rumanian historical relation.
The square has been entirely redesigned by the Foundation.

An achievement within the FIRO France - Rumania Program.
At the corner between Paris, Londra  and  Haga streets. District 1




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